New articles of HUNGARIAN AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
List of accepted articles to Issue No. 41/2022
1. THE INFLUENCE OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON THE WEIGHT OF GOLDEN DELICIOUS APPLES
S. Kassebi, P. Korzenszky
Abstract: The great majority of customers choose nutritious, fresh fruit with a distinct color for human ingestion. The Golden Delicious apple is a popular yellow-colored, delicate, sweetish, somewhat acidic, crisp-fleshed, juicy, fragrant, and aromatic apple. Apples, like other fruits, are stressed throughout their development and growth in the field, as well as during harvest and the postharvest environment (processing, storage, transportation). The refrigerated system enables bulk processing of food goods from harvest to market, guaranteeing that freshness and integrity are preserved for a prolonged time through precise temperature and humidity regulation. This study looked at the effects of three months of storage on the weight loss of Golden Delicious apples, both under refrigerated settings at 5±0.5°C and 82% relative humidity and in controlled ambient conditions at 25±0.5°C relative humidity and 60% relative humidity. The results showed that the weight loss in the two groups of apples was different. Apples held in cold storage lost 3.31g to 4.59g of weight; meanwhile, apples stored at room temperature lost 23.29g to 31.76g of weight.
Keywords: Golden Delicious apples, storage, weight loss, shelf life, temperature
2. CIRCULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIC FOOD CONSUMPTION, NEW CONSUMPTION TRENDS IN HUNGARY
Cs. Fogarassy, E. Berecz
Abstract: Consumers have an important role to play in the transition to a circular economy by making more sustainable decisions and further supporting the functioning of value groups through their consumer choices. To this end, it is necessary to promote circular and sustainable policies and practices that can lead to the emergence of demonstration initiatives. From the theory of the circular economy and the sustainability literature, 10 groups of factors can be identified that can influence the acceptance of circular products and services for consumers. None of the aspects were specifically related to the consumption and recycling of organic food. Food supply systems are identified as a potential area for the implementation of circular concepts; however, these concepts focus mainly on food production and the recycling of surplus food. Current circular solutions place less emphasis on food-related consumption, separating it from production or waste streams. In the next study, we would like to demonstrate that consumption trends have surprisingly overlapped in recent years (during Covid), resulting in a generational change in the consumption of organic food. And the clear driving force of this change is circular thinking and gaining preferences.
Keywords: organic food, food consumption, circular economy, food supply, consumer behaviour
3. MODELING THE EFFECT OF WHEEL TRAVELING ON THE SOIL SURFACE ON THE LOAD OF BURIED STRUCTURE
Abstract: As a result of the technical development of agriculture, machines with very high axle loads appeared in the fields and on farm roads. As a result, subsurface soil pressure values will also increase, which will ultimately put increased stress on underground pipelines and other structures. In our paper, we show the possibility of modelling the problem using explicit dynamical methods by means of a simple example.
Keywords: discrete element method, soil pressure, underearth pipelines, axle loads, explicit dynamical method
4. DEHYDRATING USING COMBINED ENERGY INTAKE METHOD
V. Madár, J. Gubó, L. Tóth
Abstract: Our paper introduces the research and development of a new, continuously operational food dehydrator, and the prototype of said machine. Conditions related to heating technology are required for dehydrators that prevent the vegetables and fruits from suffering too much damage to their internal components. In the new system, traditional convective heat transfer was combined with microwave dehydration, which is well-known for its better efficiency. The final goal is to create an industrial system that can satisfy both small works and industrial demands, while being more energy efficient than traditional solutions, and has faster dehydration potential. However, at the same time, due to dehydrating on lower temperature, it should end up in a gentler drying process. It is fundamental to keep the valuable components of the products intact. The system is continuously operational. The material is sent via conveyor belt through the canal, while magnetrons are operating, and low- heat and moisture airflow is moving above it. Materials dried with the machine were evaluated by the Institute of Horticulture, at the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences s (MATE).
Keywords: fruit drying, low-impact drying, microwave, convective energy, energy conservation
5. THE FINANCIAL INDICATORS OF TMR MONITORING ON DAIRY FARMS IN HUNGARY, AS PART OF QUALITY ASSURANCE TOOLS
G. Kövesdi, Sz. Orosz, Cs. Fogarassy
Abstract: The TMR (total mixed ration) technology is one of the most sufficient feeding methods on the dairy farms. From a quality assurance and technological point of view, regular TMR testing is of paramount importance to reduce the risk and extent of milk production losses and animal health problems. The goal was to find out how popular the TMR monitoring in Hungary is, and find out, how much it may cost for a dairy farm in a year. In the course of our investigations, we assessed the economic indicators of TMR samples received by the NIR Forage Laboratory of Livestock Performance Testing Ltd. between 2013 and 2021, especially the distribution and size of costs per farm and per cow. Our aim was to be able to draw conclusions about the application rates, the total and relative costs of TMR analyses according to the farm size. The proportion of farms requesting TMR examinations was higher for farms with a larger number of animals (501-1000 cows inspected). Within the category, the highest TMR sample submission rate was found for the farms with 501-600 and 801-1000 cows inspected. The average monthly total TMR laboratory cost per site was extremely low in the period of 2013-2021 (HUF 3,000-10,000 /month/farm) compared to the risk and potential loss. The relative TMR cost of farms with more than 701 cows inspected was rather low (HUF 6-9 / inspected cow / month) in terms of screening for technological errors, risk of loss and quality assurance. This indicates that there is great potential for quality assurance in TMR studies at sites and that this potential is not currently being exploited.
Keywords: TMR testing, forage analytics, self control, financial indicator, quality assurance
6. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF DROP-IN APPLICATION OF NATURAL REFRIGERANTS
Abstract: Cooling of raw materials and products in the food industry as well as in the whole food chain, including transportation and storage is an important task because it has a great impact to the product quality. This paper deal with the drop-in application of refrigerants in cooling systems used in the food industry. The focus of my research is to investigate the defrosting cycle of an evaporator in a cooling chamber with respect to the thermal medium used. Since during the process the temperature of the chamber can fluctuate, which can increase the deterioration of the stored food. My hypothesis is that if an environmentally or energetically beneficial change of refrigerant is implemented in a plant, the length of defrosting cycles will also change. My aim is to mathematically describe the relationship between refrigerants, chamber temperature and defrosting time. This will help to predict the effect of a possible refrigerant change on the length of the defrost cycle as a function of the chamber temperature.
Keywords: cooling system, natural refrigerant, drop-in, food storage, R290
7. FUZZY ARITHMETICS IN THE EVALUATION OF QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-PRESSURE FOOD PRESERVATION PROCEDURES
Z. Sebestyén, I. Szabó, N. Schrempf, P. Korzenszky, P. Víg, A. Veres
Abstract: In recent decades increasing consumer awareness the innovations in the very different fields of technology and changes in societal norms have led to changes in food consumption patterns. The growing demand for minimally processed natural-textured, healthy, and microbiologically safe foods has shifted processing toward high-pressure preservation rather than traditional heat treatment processes. In recent years, fuzzy control has become important in the application of technology, which is able to meet the quality expectations of consumers by dealing with the blurred boundaries of various everyday product characteristics (taste, colour, texture, etc.). The applicability of fuzzy logic has been shown to be effective in a variety of process controls, including preservation procedures. The aim of this work is to summarize the basics of fuzzy arithmetic required in the fuzzy controls used in high-pressure preservation processes.
Keywords: fuzzy logic, fuzzy arithmetic, food safety, food quality, high pressure food processing
8. ANALYSIS OF LOGISTICAL AND MACHINE WORK COSTS OF THE CULTIVATION OF SWEET SORGHUM AS RAW MATERIAL FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION
Abstract: This work is a comprehensive examination that analyses the machine fleet formation and machine use of plant production farms that grow sweet sorghum too by using computer aided modelling. It considers the characteristics of machines used at the production technologies of different plants and it especially focuses on the appliance of machines with the convenient capacity and level from the side of costs at different farm sizes. The survey was based on the work tasks of a “classical” crop production farm. By the technical-economical analysis of the production-technology of sweet sorghum it has been determined that the total production cost of this plant per hectare in case of small-scale farm size is minimum 965 EUR. Examining the large-scale production, the costs are decreasing, but they cannot be reduced under the 860 EUR/hectare level.
Keywords: plant production, farm size, machine fleet planning, machine utilisation, low-cost machine fleet
9. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF USING SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY FOR HEATING SWIMMING POOLS IN CENTRAL EUROPEAN CLIMATE (HUNGARY AS A CASE STUDY)
R. Ghabour, S. Hossain, P. Korzenszky
Abstract: Heating swimming pools using electrical elements is costly and causes environmental impact by producing CO2 emissions. While renewable energy, such as solar energy, proves a viable alternative source for swimming pool heating. This article aims to simulate various Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems in cold climates like Central European countries to define the best system for swimming pool heating. Three different systems were compared: a solar heating system without auxiliary heating or heat exchanger (B6), with a heat exchanger (B6.1) and with a heat exchanger and an auxiliary heating source (B6.2). Also, five crucial variables were chosen, along with the variation of the other parameters using the response surface method (RSM). This system optimisation aims to define an optimal system with less financial expenditure. It was found that the best system is B6, represented by Experiment No 25, which indicates the Collector type: flat plate collector (FPC), pool depth: 1 m, pool temperature: 26 ℃, pool covers, and windshield are actively operated. We used the T*SOL Valentine Software-2018 (kWh) to measure the solar contribution for each case. For each vector, our coded values range from [-1, +1]. The formula 2k (25=32 experiments) defines the number of experiments, where k is a vector number. In addition, two more experiments were done to define second-degree non-linear coefficients with a pool depth (B) of 1.5 m and 28 ℃ pool temperature. These two additional experiments, however, had no impact on our results. Finally, the swimming pool heating systems suitable for this weather were compared. This experiment can help the locals to find the optimal swimming pool heating system for their pools.
Keywords: solar heating; pool heating; auxiliary heating; T*sol; R-script
10. THE ROLE OF MILL MACHINERY IN REDUCING DON-TOXIN
E. Kecskésné-Nagy, J. Nagy
Abstract: In recent years the fusarium infection and accompanying DON–toxin contamination caused serious losses in the wheat growing and processing. Besides decrease of average yield it was serious problem that not a small part of the growned and harvested crop was unsuitable for food and forage production or the usage was limited. This phenomena caused problem in many countries all over the world according to data of scientific literature. There is a statement in the literature also that DON-toxin content can be decreased efficiently and safely only during the cultivation of plant and the possibilities for that are very limited during processing. We wanted to prove with our experiment that it is possible to decrease DON-toxin level of wheat items by application modern equipment and machineries, wherewith the losses and the food safety risks can be minimized. During our experiment we studied the effect of two milling machine on DON toxin content. (Sortex Z color sorter and Scule Verticone intensive surface cleaner). Both modern machine can be built-in the cleaning process in the mills. In our investigation we took samples from harvested wheat items during processing in the year of the experiment. The data were subjected to complex investigation and we evaluated them with different statistical methods. On this basis we can unequivocally state both machines are effective in reducing toxin level of basic material. In the year of the experiment the regression analysis showed that the Schule surface cleaner was more effective than the color sorting machine.
Keywords: effectivity of color sorting, effectivity of grain-surface cleaning, milling wheat, effectivity of toxin reduction
DESIGN OF POSITIONING EQUIPMENT FOR WELDING GAS PIPES OF DIFFERENT DIAMETERS
Z. Szakal, I. Oldal, L. Zsidai
Abstract: The research involved the design of pipe positioning equipment for the repair of natural gas and oil pipelines. This paper presents the research results of the design of the hydraulic pipe positioning and straightening device and its practical implementation. Several concept calculations and design analyses were carried out during the design. The final design and layout was selected from several possible solutions.
Keywords: natural oil, natural gas, welding, positioning, hydraulic system