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New articles of HUNGARIAN AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

List of accepted articles to Issue No. 41/2022


1. THE INFLUENCE OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON THE WEIGHT OF GOLDEN DELICIOUS APPLES

Author(s):

S. Kassebi, P. Korzenszky

Abstract: The great majority of customers choose nutritious, fresh fruit with a distinct color for human ingestion. The Golden Delicious apple is a popular yellow-colored, delicate, sweetish, somewhat acidic, crisp-fleshed, juicy, fragrant, and aromatic apple. Apples, like other fruits, are stressed throughout their development and growth in the field, as well as during harvest and the postharvest environment (processing, storage, transportation). The refrigerated system enables bulk processing of food goods from harvest to market, guaranteeing that freshness and integrity are preserved for a prolonged time through precise temperature and humidity regulation. This study looked at the effects of three months of storage on the weight loss of Golden Delicious apples, both under refrigerated settings at 5±0.5°C and 82% relative humidity and in controlled ambient conditions at 25±0.5°C relative humidity and 60% relative humidity. The results showed that the weight loss in the two groups of apples was different. Apples held in cold storage lost 3.31g to 4.59g of weight; meanwhile, apples stored at room temperature lost 23.29g to 31.76g of weight.

Keywords: Golden Delicious apples, storage, weight loss, shelf life, temperature


2. CIRCULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIC FOOD CONSUMPTION, NEW CONSUMPTION TRENDS IN HUNGARY

Author(s):

Cs. Fogarassy, E. Berecz

Abstract: Consumers have an important role to play in the transition to a circular economy by making more sustainable decisions and further supporting the functioning of value groups through their consumer choices. To this end, it is necessary to promote circular and sustainable policies and practices that can lead to the emergence of demonstration initiatives. From the theory of the circular economy and the sustainability literature, 10 groups of factors can be identified that can influence the acceptance of circular products and services for consumers. None of the aspects were specifically related to the consumption and recycling of organic food. Food supply systems are identified as a potential area for the implementation of circular concepts; however, these concepts focus mainly on food production and the recycling of surplus food. Current circular solutions place less emphasis on food-related consumption, separating it from production or waste streams. In the next study, we would like to demonstrate that consumption trends have surprisingly overlapped in recent years (during Covid), resulting in a generational change in the consumption of organic food. And the clear driving force of this change is circular thinking and gaining preferences.

Keywords: organic food, food consumption, circular economy, food supply, consumer behaviour


3. MODELING THE EFFECT OF WHEEL TRAVELING ON THE SOIL SURFACE ON THE LOAD OF BURIED STRUCTURE

Author(s):

I. Keppler

Abstract: As a result of the technical development of agriculture, machines with very high axle loads appeared in the fields and on farm roads. As a result, subsurface soil pressure values will also increase, which will ultimately put increased stress on underground pipelines and other structures. In our paper, we show the possibility of modelling the problem using explicit dynamical methods by means of a simple example.

Keywords: discrete element method, soil pressure, underearth pipelines, axle loads, explicit dynamical method


4. DEHYDRATING USING COMBINED ENERGY INTAKE METHOD

Author(s):

V. Madár, J. Gubó, L. Tóth

Abstract: Our paper introduces the research and development of a new, continuously operational food dehydrator, and the prototype of said machine. Conditions related to heating technology are required for dehydrators that prevent the vegetables and fruits from suffering too much damage to their internal components. In the new system, traditional convective heat transfer was combined with microwave dehydration, which is well-known for its better efficiency. The final goal is to create an industrial system that can satisfy both small works and industrial demands, while being more energy efficient than traditional solutions, and has faster dehydration potential. However, at the same time, due to dehydrating on lower temperature, it should end up in a gentler drying process. It is fundamental to keep the valuable components of the products intact. The system is continuously operational. The material is sent via conveyor belt through the canal, while magnetrons are operating, and low- heat and moisture airflow is moving above it. Materials dried with the machine were evaluated by the Institute of Horticulture, at the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences s (MATE).

Keywords: fruit drying, low-impact drying, microwave, convective energy, energy conservation


5. THE FINANCIAL INDICATORS OF TMR MONITORING ON DAIRY FARMS IN HUNGARY, AS PART OF QUALITY ASSURANCE TOOLS

Author(s):

G. Kövesdi, Sz. Orosz, Cs. Fogarassy

Abstract: The TMR (total mixed ration) technology is one of the most sufficient feeding methods on the dairy farms. From a quality assurance and technological point of view, regular TMR testing is of paramount importance to reduce the risk and extent of milk production losses and animal health problems. The goal was to find out how popular the TMR monitoring in Hungary is, and find out, how much it may cost for a dairy farm in a year. In the course of our investigations, we assessed the economic indicators of TMR samples received by the NIR Forage Laboratory of Livestock Performance Testing Ltd. between 2013 and 2021, especially the distribution and size of costs per farm and per cow. Our aim was to be able to draw conclusions about the application rates, the total and relative costs of TMR analyses according to the farm size. The proportion of farms requesting TMR examinations was higher for farms with a larger number of animals (501-1000 cows inspected). Within the category, the highest TMR sample submission rate was found for the farms with 501-600 and 801-1000 cows inspected. The average monthly total TMR laboratory cost per site was extremely low in the period of 2013-2021 (HUF 3,000-10,000 /month/farm) compared to the risk and potential loss. The relative TMR cost of farms with more than 701 cows inspected was rather low (HUF 6-9 / inspected cow / month) in terms of screening for technological errors, risk of loss and quality assurance. This indicates that there is great potential for quality assurance in TMR studies at sites and that this potential is not currently being exploited.

Keywords: TMR testing, forage analytics, self control, financial indicator, quality assurance


6. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF DROP-IN APPLICATION OF NATURAL REFRIGERANTS

Author(s):

P. Hermanucz

Abstract: Cooling of raw materials and products in the food industry as well as in the whole food chain, including transportation and storage is an important task because it has a great impact to the product quality. This paper deal with the drop-in application of refrigerants in cooling systems used in the food industry. The focus of my research is to investigate the defrosting cycle of an evaporator in a cooling chamber with respect to the thermal medium used. Since during the process the temperature of the chamber can fluctuate, which can increase the deterioration of the stored food. My hypothesis is that if an environmentally or energetically beneficial change of refrigerant is implemented in a plant, the length of defrosting cycles will also change. My aim is to mathematically describe the relationship between refrigerants, chamber temperature and defrosting time. This will help to predict the effect of a possible refrigerant change on the length of the defrost cycle as a function of the chamber temperature.

Keywords: cooling system, natural refrigerant, drop-in, food storage, R290


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